Sunday, May 24, 2020

Yayasan Pantau: Kelas Menulis Daring

Yayasan Pantau bikin kursus online soal bagaimana bikin liputan panjang dan menuliskannya. Pantau biasanya menolak bikin kursus online. Interaksi dalam kelas terbatas bila ia dilakukan online. Namun wabah Covid19 membuat physical contact susah.

Semua sesi online akan pakai Google Meet. Video akan direkam. Sesi online akan disertai video, audio dan gambar termasuk peta. Bila menarik, ia akan ditaruh di You Tube.

Syarat peserta adalah aktivis hak asasi manusia atau lingkungan hidup, pers mahasiswa, wartawan atau profesional lain, yang sudah biasa menulis. Mereka seharusnya sudah mengerti 10 elemen jurnalisme dari Bill Kovach dan Tom Rosenstiel serta tahu pertimbangan menulis panjang --sering secara bergairah disebut "jurnalisme sastrawi"-- yang diterangkan Robert Vare.

Kelas ini gratis, diadakan setiap minggu. Kelak bila sudah bentuknya baik akan diminta bayaran. Setiap sesi perlu daftar kepada Ruth Ogetay dengan Whatsapp +62-813-1544-9128 untuk diberikan alamat Google Meet.


Sesi pertama Studi kasus naskah "Sebuah Kegilaan di Simpang Kraft"
Jumat, 29 Mei 2020 pukul 17-18.30 WIB

Naskah ini terbitan Mei 2002 majalah bulanan Pantau karya Chik Rini, seorang wartawan Banda Aceh. Ceritanya, penembakan terhadap warga Aceh di Lhokseumawe pada Mei 1999. Setidaknya 46 orang mati ditembak. Chik Rini wawancara dan jadikan lima orang wartawan, termasuk kamerawan Ali Raban, sebagai karakter dalam narasi ini.

Kontras menerbitkan podcast "Sebuah Kegilaan Simpang Kraft" dibawakan Iyok Baswara. Panjangnya, 1.5 jam. Bisa didengarkan malam-malam, sambil membayangkan penembakan dan pembunuhan massal di Simpang Kraft.

Chik Rini dan Iyok Baswara akan tampil dalam sesi ini. Baswara akan membacakan beberapa alinea dari podcast. Chik Rini akan cerita background liputan tersebut. Moderator Andreas Harsono dari Yayasan Pantau yang kebetulan menyunting naskah tersebut pada 2002.

Bahan kuliah

Monday, May 04, 2020

List of Known Political Prisoners in Indonesia

UPDATE May 4, 2020

Indonesian authorities have imprisoned four political prisoners in Ambon since July 2007, for their involvement in a peaceful protest dance by 28 people at the Ambon stadium.  The four were among a total of 68 men, including the dancers, who were arrested and sentenced to between 7 and 20 years in prison on treason charges. All have since been released except for the four, who each received 17-year prison terms: Jhon Markus; Romanus Batseran; Jordan Saiya; and Johannis Saija.

Human Rights Watch used a database provided by the London-based Tapol organization as well as the submission by the lawyers Jennifer Robinson and Veronica Koman to the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention to list these cases in eight cities in Indonesia:

Jakarta: The Central Jakarta court sentenced six activists on April 24, 2020, to up to nine months in prison. They were allegedly involved in a peaceful rally outside the State Palace on August 28, 2019, to protest racist attacks against Papuan students in Surabaya on August 17. They include Ambrosius Mulait, chairman of the Association of Papuan Central Highlands Students in Indonesia; Arina Elopere Gwijangge, a theology student; Charles Kossay, an activist; Dano Tabuni, an activist; and Suryanta Ginting, spokesperson for the Indonesian People’s Front for West Papua. Ginting is the only non-Papuan Indonesian activist jailed on treason charges. The court also sentenced Isay Wenda, a Papuan student, to eight months in prison.

Wamena, Papua: Indonesian police arrested Jakub Skrzypski and Simon Magal in 2018 when Skrzypski, a Polish national, was in Papua. Magal and Skrzypski were sentenced respectively to four and seven years in prison for treason. Skrzypski is the first foreigner to be sentenced under article 106.

Ambon, Moluccas Islands: Five Moluccan political prisoners are jailed in Waiheru and Passo prisons in Ambon. On June 29, 2019, police arrested a couple, Izaak Siahaja, 80, and Pelpina Werinussa, 72, because they had the RMS flag displayed inside their home. Siahaja was convicted of treason and sentenced to five and a half years in prison. Werinussa and their three guests – Johan Noya, Basten Noya, and Markus Noya – were sentenced to five years in prison, also for treason.

Balikpapan, East Kalimantan: Police arrested seven Papuan activists separately in Jayapura, Papua, after anti-racism protests in Papua and West Papua provinces in August and September 2019. They are Buchtar Tabuni, chairman of the West Papua National Parliament, part of the Vanuatu-based United Liberation Movement for West Papua; Agus Kossay, chairman of the National Committee for West Papua, the largest youth organization in both provinces that advocates for a UN-sponsored referendum; Steven Itlay, coordinator of the National Committee for West Papua in Timika; and four campus student leaders – Alexander Gobay, Ferry Gombo, Hengki Hilapok, and Irwanus Uropmabin. Tabuni and Itlay are former political prisoners. On October 4, the police flew them to Balikpapan in East Kalimantan on security grounds. Their trial is slated to begin online soon.

Jayapura, Papua: Police arrested Assa Asso, a filmmaker of the Papuan Voices art community and a member of the National Committee for West Papua, on September 23, 2019, and charged him with treason. He had uploaded a video about the anti-racism protest on August 23 on his Facebook page. He is being held in Jayapura. His trial began on March 4, 2020.

Manokwari, West Papua: Police arrested Sayang Mandabayan, a former Sorong city council member, in Manokwari airport on September 3, 2019, for carrying 1,500 small Morning Star flags. Police charged her with treason. Her trial began on February 13, 2020. Police also arrested three Papuan students in Manokwari – Erik Aliknoe, Pende Mirin, and Yunus Aliknoe – on September 18, 2019, for organizing an anti-racism protest on September 3, at which Mandabayan was to supply the small flags. Their trial began in February 2020.

Sorong, West Papua: Police arrested four Papuan students – Rianto Ruruk, Yoseph Syufi, Manase Baho, and Etus Miwak Kareth – on September 18, 2019, after they took part in an anti-racism rally in Sorong with Morning Star stickers. Their trial began on March 5, 2020. In November, the police arrested 11 other Papuans, mostly farmers, activists, and a tailor, after they announced a commemoration of the 1961 declaration of West Papua independence. They included Silvester Nauw and his wife, Melfin Wefete. Each of the 11 possessed Morning Star T-shirts for the planned rally.

Fakfak, Papua: Police arrested a total of 23 Papuan men, mostly farmers, on December 1, 2019, when they were walking from their Warpa and Pikpik villages to Fakfak to celebrate the 1961 declaration of West Papua independence. They were charged with treason and are awaiting trial in Fakfak prison and the Fakfak police detention center.

New Arrests for Peaceful Political Expression

More Than 70 Papuan, Moluccan Activists Jailed for Nonviolent Protests

(Jakarta) – The Indonesian government should immediately release at least 70 Papuan and Moluccan activists imprisoned for peacefully voicing their political views, Human Rights Watch said today. The government should adopt measures to ensure that police and prosecutors, especially in the eastern provinces, protect free expression rights in accordance with a 2018 constitutional court ruling.

From April 25 to 27, 2020, the police in Maluku arrested 23 activists, including at least two children, who allegedly participated in flag-raising ceremonies commemorating the 70th anniversary of the declaration of independence of the Republic of South Moluccas (Republik Maluku Selatan, RMS) in 1950. The police indicated that seven of the activists will be charged with treason under article 106 of the criminal code, which carries a maximum sentence of life in prison.

“Detaining and prosecuting Papuan and Moluccan activists for peacefully voicing their political views backtracks on the government’s commitments to free expression,” said Andreas Harsono, senior Indonesia researcher at Human Rights Watch. “These activists should never have been imprisoned, and detaining them in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic could be deadly.”

On April 25, three activists walked openly into the Moluccan police headquarters in Ambon, the capital of Maluku province, carrying the RMS flag. They shouted “Mena muria,” a popular salute among Moluccan people, traditionally used among boat rowers that means, “You go, I follow.” Police arrested the three men – Johanes Pattiasina, Simon Viktor Taihutu, and Abner Litamahuputty – as well as four other activists who unfurled the flags in some other towns.

On April 24, a court in Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital, convicted six Papuan activists for treason and sentenced them to between eight and nine months in prison. The five men and one woman were involved in a rally on August 28, 2019, outside the State Palace in Jakarta, during which they unfurled the Morning Star flag, a symbol of Papuan independence. The rally, involving more than 500 people, was held to protest racist attacks by the police against Papuan students in Surabaya, Java Island, on August 17.

The six activists are among 63 political prisoners in prison for peacefully expressing their political beliefs. On April 15, 2020, their lawyers submitted information on their cases to the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention.

Human Rights Watch, along with Amnesty International, Kontras, and other human rights groups, have for more than a decade pressed the Indonesian government to release political prisoners.

In May 2015, President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo pardoned and released five Papuan prisoners from Abepura prison, Jayapura. He publicly promised to release all Moluccan and Papuan prisoners, and said he wanted “to stop the stigma of conflict in Papua and to create a sense of peace.” His administration gradually released nearly 100 political prisoners, mostly by reducing sentences.

In January 2018, Indonesia’s Constitutional Court rejected a judicial review to annul the criminal code’s six treason articles, including article 106, but found that those articles were often disproportionally applied against political activists raising the Morning Star flag in Papua and the RMS flag in the Moluccas Islands.

President Jokowi should drop all charges for peaceful political expression, order the release of all political prisoners, and review the failure of law enforcement officers, especially in the Moluccas Islands and Papua and West Papua provinces, to follow the Constitutional Court ruling, Human Rights Watch said.

Concerned governments, including the United States, European Union member countries, and Australia, should raise the situation of Indonesia’s political prisoners in bilateral meetings. The Polish government should raise concerns about the treatment of Jakub Skrzypski, a Polish national who was arrested in West Papua and sentenced in May 2019 to five years in prison under article 106.

Human Rights Watch takes no position on claims to self-determination in Indonesia or in any other country. Consistent with international law, however, Human Rights Watch supports the right of all individuals, including independence supporters, to express their political views peacefully without fear of arrest or other forms of reprisal.

“President Jokowi succeeded in releasing many political prisoners in his first five years in office,” Harsono said. “Jokowi’s second term should not produce as many political prisoners as his predecessor. These cases are a bitter betrayal of his government’s prior policy and contrary to a top court ruling.”

Sunday, May 03, 2020

Perempuan berbudi luhur, seks virtual dan COVID-19

Julia Suryakusuma (duduk) dalam acara Yayasan Pantau, Jakarta, 17 Oktober 2018.

Julia Suryakusuma

UNTUNG rasanya aku sudah jauh melewati masa suburku! Bayangkan hamil, terutama untuk pertama kalinya, dan melahirkan selama pandemi global yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya ini. Anda tidak hanya takut terinfeksi, Anda juga khawatir janin di kandungan Andapun akan terinfeksi. Waduh!

Seorang ibu hamil perlu melakukan kunjungan pranatal secara teratur. Bagaimana melakukannya dengan PSBB (pengaturan sosial berskala besar)? Sebenarnya, ada tele-konsultasi, untuk menggantikan kunjungan langsung, tetapi hal ini masih langka di Indonesia.

Perempuan hamil di Hong Kong
dengan poster masker, Maret 2020
(AFP/Anthony Wallace)
Bagaimana dengan resep kontrasepsi yang perlu diisi ulang setiap satu hingga tiga bulan? Atau kontrasepsi darurat (kondar)? Pastinya tidak bisa dilakukan secara virtual. Bagaimana kalau hubungan seks secara virtual saja kalau begitu? Pasti tidak hamil!

Kehamilan adalah salah satu topik yang dibahas pada webinar International NGO Forum on Indonesian Development (INFID) kedua, tentang Perempuan dan COVID-19 yang diadakan April 24, dipresentasikan Zumrotin K. Susilo dari Yayasan Kesehatan Perempuan, pembicara pertama.

Pembicara kedua adalah Nani Zulminarni, pendiri dan direktur Yayasan Pemberdayaan Perempuan Kepala Keluarga (PEKKA). Dia berbicara tentang nasib anggota PEKKA. Banyak dari mereka adalah pekerja harian yang tidak dapat memperoleh penghasilan karena PSBB: petani dan buruh tani (37 persen), pedagang pasar (15 persen), produsen kerajinan dan makanan (9 persen), jasa (9 persen), pekerja pabrik (6 persen), guru (2 persen), pekerja kantor (1 persen), perempuan nelayan (1 persen), pegawai negeri, polisi, militer, pensiunan (1 persen) dan penganggur (19 persen).

Hanya sekitar 4 persen berpenghasilan Rp 2 juta per bulan, lebih dari 10 persen berpenghasilan antara Rp 500.000 dan Rp 1 juta, lebih dari 45 persen berpenghasilan di bawah Rp 500.000 dan 19 persen tidak memiliki penghasilan sama sekali. Banyak yang sudah berada di dalam siklus kemiskinan, tetapi tanpa bantuan luar, COVID-19 benar-benar menempatkan mereka pada jalan buntu. Dan dengan rumah tangga yang dikepalai perempuan yang merupakan 17 hingga 25 persen seluruh rumah tangga di Indonesia, kita berbicara mengenai jumlah yang besar.

Nur Iman “Boni” Subono, pembicara ketiga, anggota dewan redaksi Jurnal Perempuan sejak awal 1995, mengangkat isu mereka yang berada di garis depan pertempuran melawan virus korona: perawat.

Pertama, rasio pekerja medis di Indonesia (termasuk perawat) dengan populasi umum adalah 1:100.000.

Jadi pandemi atau tidak, sebaiknya jangan sakit ya? Apalagi jika Anda miskin.

Per 2019, perawat di Indonesia berjumlah 345.508, dengan hampir setengahnya di Jawa dan sisanya tersebar tipis di wilayah lain.

Di saat-saat normal pun, perawat rentan terhadap kekerasan di tempat kerja, tetapi dalam suasana ketakutan, frustrasi, dan stres pandemi saat ini, mereka menjadi sasaran pelampiasan di semua bidang kehidupan mereka. Di tempat kerja, mereka diperlakukan dengan kasar, diancam, dihina, diludahi, bahkan diperkosa. Dalam perjalanan ke tempat kerja, mereka menghadapi intimidasi, pelecehan seksual dan bahkan lebih buruk lagi.

Lega dong ya kalau pulang?

Oh, tidak! Terutama jika sang suami tidak dapat pergi bekerja karena PSBB. Ia merasa “dikebiri” karena harus tinggal di rumah sementara istrinya, seorang perawat, harus pergi keluar untuk pergi bekerja. Coba tebak apa yang terjadi? Kekerasan dalam rumah tangga, yang pada umumnya terus meningkat di tengah pandemi ini.

Dengan peran gender tradisional yang berlaku, perempuan masih harus melakukan sebagian besar pekerjaan rumah dan berurusan dengan anak-anak yang tiba-tiba harus bersekolah di rumah. Itu kalau mereka bisa pulang.

Dengan melimpahnya pasien akibat COVID-19, sering para perawat harus tinggal selama berminggu-minggu di klinik atau rumah sakit.

Bayangkan stres dan rasa takut akan kemungkinan terinfeksi dan meninggal, yang memang terjadi, terutama karena perawat tidak selalu dilengkapi dengan alat pelindung diri (APD) yang memadai. Tidak ada pakaian hazmat? Hei, tidak masalah, jas hujan plastik pun jadi!

Seperti yang ditulis Clare Wright, ahli sejarah Universitas La Trobe, Melbourne, dalam The Guardian: "Pandemi bukanlah perang, tetapi petugas kesehatan kita adalah pahlawan."

Namun, alih-alih diperlakukan seperti itu, Boni menemukan dalam penelitiannya bahwa perawat distigmatisasi dan diperlakukan seperti paria ketika mereka kembali ke komunitas mereka, karena ketakutan terinfeksi.

Jelas bahwa anak-anak mereka menderita. Aku melihat foto menyedihkan dalam presentasi Boni dari seorang bocah lelaki dengan ekspresi pilu di wajahnya sambil memegang poster bertuliskan: “Ibuku perawat. Ia menjauhkan diri dariku sehingga ia dapat membantu Anda." Duh!

Apa yang dialami perawat di Indonesia juga terjadi pada perawat di banyak negara lain. Meski apa yang mereka alami ekstrem, perawat sebenarnya melambangkan kehidupan banyak perempuan di seluruh dunia.

Tapi tunggu, ada kabar baik!

"Keenam negara dengan respons terbaik terhadap COVID-19 memiliki satu kesamaan: Pemimpin perempuan."

Ini adalah judul salah satu dari sekian banyak artikel yang kubaca dengan pengamatan yang sama. Negara-negara itu adalah Selandia Baru, Norwegia, Islandia, Jerman, Belgia dan Taiwan.

Di sisi lain, "COVID-19 dapat membawa perempuan mundur satu dekade dalam kesetaraan gender" adalah judul satu artikel dari sekian artikel lainnya dengan isi serupa.

Mengapa terjadi kesenjangan ini? Karena ini hanya enam negara dari 195 di dunia! Lagi pula, memiliki pemimpin perempuan saja tidak cukup; perspektif feminis atau gender harus diterapkan ke dalam setiap kebijakan nasional dan internasional!

Dalam dunia yang misoginis, hal ini merupakan perjuangan berat, tetapi dalam memerangi COVID-19, keenam pemimpin perempuan telah membuktikan bahwa mereka bisa lebih baik daripada rekan-rekan pria mereka yang overdosis hormon macho testosteron, jadi mungkin pemimpin perempuan bisa melakukan lebih baik dalam bidang lainnya juga!

Julia Suryakusuma adalah penulis buku Negara, Seks, dan Kekuasaan.

* Tulisan ini adalah terjemahan kolom berjudul “Virtuous women, virtual sex and COVID-19”, yang diterbitkan di The Jakarta Post, 29 April 2020. Ia diterbitkan di sini dengan seizin Julia Suryakusuma.